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Jury rigged alternators | Pangolin

I n the last couple of decades, the amount of electrical equipment aboard boats has increased enormously in are slots rigged quantity and sophistication. Some would argue that electric lights, radios and navigators are essentials, but what use is any of it without electrical power?

On most boats, the main source is the engine alternator which typically provides around times the output of a solar panel, wind or prop are slots rigged generator.

Clearly the alternator is a key component but in contrast to the amazing advances that have been made in other areas, battery charging systems remain basically the same as are slots rigged in use half a century ago. In essence, alternators are simple devices, not difficult to understand, and most faults can be fixed with no more than basic tools and simple electrical skills. In this article we will not be looking at specific models, but alternators in general. Understanding their working are slots rigged and being able to recognise parts and wiring should put you in a position to tackle most common problems, even on a type you have never seen before.

First Principles When a magnet is passed over a wire, an electric current is produced in the wire. With just one wire and a small magnet, the effect is hardly noticeable but useful amounts of electricity can be made by increasing the strength of are slots rigged magnet and by using a coiled wire. In alternators, this is increased still further by using several coils connected together ie.

The field magnet is formed by passing a current via brushes and slip rings through a coil of wire around the iron core of the rotor. The reason for using this instead of a simple permanent magnet is that, by varying the current through the coil, the strength of are slots rigged field are slots rigged hence the alternator output, can also be varied.

This is important as, check this out control of the output, there would be a risk of damaging the battery through overcharging. The main coils in which current is generated are wound between slots on the inside of a laminated iron ring, forming the stator and main body of the alternator.

At first sight, you see what looks like are slots rigged intricate set of interconnected copper coils. Some overlap each other and all are tightly bound and varnished together, making it hard to see exactly what is connected to what. None the less, it's not hard to recognise the layout, once you know what to look for. The arrangement shown below is typical. All alternators have three separate sets of stator windings, each consisting of several individual coils joined in series.

In fig 2 there are 6 but other types have 6 more reverse wound coils occupying the spaces between those shown. When the stator is assembled, one complete set is laid down first, then following sets are laid on top but with individual coils slightly to the side of those in previous layers. Fig 2 also shows the two ways, star and delta, in which windings can be connected. Technical differences between the two need not concern us, though when checking windings for faults, it's useful to know which type you are dealing with.

As their name would suggest, alternators produce alternating current AC. Its direction changes as alternate north and south poles of the field magnet pass over each coil and this is no good for battery charging which requires a direct current DC. Open 2016 AC to DC is the job of the diodes.

These are small, cylindrical devices, arranged in groups of three and mounted on an aluminium or copper plate just beneath the alternator are slots rigged cover. They act as electrical are slots rigged return valves, only allowing the current to flow in one direction, but unfortunately they are not quite perfect and consume a little energy themselves.

This is dissipated as heat are slots rigged their mounting plate, sometimes aided by cooling fins. There are always 6 main diodes, are slots rigged are often arranged in two groups of three.

Diodes within the groups are identical but the group connected to the negative terminal is likely to be assembled from diodes whose body is their anode are slots rigged. This is simply for the are slots rigged of being able to bolt all three to the same heat sink.

Diodes connected to the positive terminal have the reverse configuration. Controlling the output The term voltage regulator is a little misleading as its purpose is really to control charge current. It does this by monitoring the voltage in the output supply lines. If their voltage is low, say about 11 volts, it responds by sending more current to netent free spins field coils.

This increases their magnetism which in turn causes the alternator to pass more current to the battery. As it becomes charged the battery terminal voltage increases a little and this is detected by the regulator which reacts by reducing the field current and hence the alternator output. Sealed electronics Most are slots rigged in use on boats today are sealed pieces of electronics, usually located beneath the rear cover though, on some types, it is in a separate, externally connected unit.

Most regulators used on boats were designed for road vehicle applications but are slots rigged boats they are not good at bringing a nearly flat battery quickly up to full charge. To make are slots rigged for this shortcoming, several firms have produced are slots rigged types with improved characteristics. However, we will leave the comparison for another day since, at a pinch, any alternator can be made to function without either sort more on this laterand this is good enough for our purposes here.

Two types of regulator Regulators fall into two categories which are not interchangeable. These are called "N" and "P" types, and for trouble shooting purposes it's useful to be able to recognise which type you have, which means tracing the regulator and field coil connections. Fig 4 gives the details. Trouble shooting Most alternator difficulties are not caused are slots rigged obscure electrical problems but simple faults like bad connections or not having the drive belt tension correctly adjusted.

Too much slack will cause the belt to slip so output current will be low and batteries slow to charge. As it slips, the belt are slots rigged make a squealing noise and throw off are slots rigged black particles of rubber. In bad cases the drive pulleys will become overheated and eventually, the belt will smoke and burn. Too much tension is just as bad and damages the belt as well as the end bearings of the alternator and any other item driven by it eg.

If the belt is actually broken, it is hard to get by without an exact replacement. The type of segmented belt that can be taken apart and rejoined to make any required length is a useful standby, though in the absence of this, don't rely on the idea that a spliced length of rope or knotty panty hose will do instead. After checking the belt and before looking further are slots rigged any alternator problem, make sure that all ancillaries eg.

You see more be saved a pointless strip down or trip to the repairers. Having completed the preliminaries and ruled out all the easy to fix faults, it's time to delve a little deeper into the works, but let's check the easier things first. Brushes and slip rings Brushes are normally mounted in a detachable plastic holder, located beneath the back cover.

If space around the engine is not too restricted you may be able to remove the cover and brush holder without taking out the alternator as a whole.

With the brush holder out, check that the brushes are not worn, can move freely in their holder and that the securing spring pressure is sufficient to hold them firmly against the rotor slip rings.

Whilst the brushes are out take a look at the slip rings at the same time. This is easier if the alternator is out of the engine but if they are only slightly discoloured and not deeply grooved possibly due to worn brushes then leave them alone.

If you dismantle the alternator, carefully clean away any baked oil or grease with a fine abrasive. In an emergency, fairly satisfactory replacement brushes are slots rigged be made by taking the brushes from an an electrical appliance like an electric drill, sander or vacuum cleaner.

The chances are that none of these will be a direct fit in the alternator brush holder but just so long as they are not too small to begin with, this type of carbon brush is easily sanded down to size. Alternator windings have a resistance of only a few ohms which most multi-meters are unable to distinguish from are slots rigged short circuit. For these purposes, a simple battery and test lamp is a good tool to use and is easily assembled from bits are slots rigged to be found on board.

Fig 5 shows a small 12 volt battery could have been a collection of torch batteries and 21 watt cabin light bulb, being are slots rigged to test the continuity click at this page field windings from a Motorola alternator. When the test wires are touched against the slip rings of a good rotor you may see a little sparking and the bulb should light up, though it should not shine quite as brightly as does when the wires are joined together.

If you try this test without removing the rotor, make sure that connections to the brushes are removed. Also check that there is no short circuit between the windings and the case by making sure that the bulb does not light up when the test wires are held against one slip ring and shaft. Field windings don't often fail but if it happens, without are slots rigged replacement or rewound rotor there is little you can do.

Diodes Diode failures are relatively common. One reason for failure is that the alternator has click disconnected from the battery whilst it was running under load.

The battery normally keeps the alternator output voltage within acceptable limits but if disconnected, a rise of one or two hundred volts can occur. Individual diodes are best checked by first removing the diode assembly from the alternator and ensuring that at least one end of each diode is not connected to any other part.

Testing diodes while they are still wired into the alternator can give misleading results, so it is best to begin by removing all diodes complete with their heat sink. This usually involves unsoldering the stator windings and disconnecting a few smaller wires. Diodes are slots rigged like electrical one way valves and once removed can be tested by connecting test lamp wires between body and end terminal. The light should shine brightly only when the test wires are connected a particular way round.

Reverse the wires and the light should not come on. If the light comes on with the wires either way round, the diode is "shorted" and if it won't come on at all it is "open circuit". In either are slots rigged it's a dud, but an alternator can still produce a useful amount of output current with one or two open circuit diodes. Any shorted diodes must be removed. However, if one or two are open circuit and connected to the same stator winding, the alternator will still work but see the comments below on 2 phase operation.

If you can't get an original replacement diode assembly and only one diode is blown, you might consider making a temporary repair by wiring a another are slots rigged in its place, but make sure you connect it the correct way round see fig 3.

Blocking diodes used in dual battery charging circuits are a possibility and electronics shops often keep a good selection, are slots rigged industrial types at non-marine prices. Look for silicon, stud-mounted diodes with ratings of at least volts and 16 amps. In fact, diodes more robust than alternator types are quite here to obtain, though they will be bigger and might not fit within the alternator case.

Here you might consider assembling a set of diodes on a large heat sink and mounting them separately from the alternator. Stator winding checks With the stator wires disconnected from the diodes, use the test lamp to show that electrical continuity exists between any two of the three wires. Also, use the lamp to show that no short circuit exists between the case and the windings.

If you suspect shorts down to the case, try to trace out the coil connection pattern. If it's delta connected, separate out the 6 wires are slots rigged the three visit web page and use the test lamp to separately check each for shorts or open circuits.

With star alternators, look for the common centre point, probably tucked somewhere behind the windings. Try to separate it out and again test each of the windings separately. Once you have located the fault, isolate it and connect the remaining two windings back as normal.

The alternator now runs with two instead of three phases, but will still produce a useful amount of current. However, it will run are slots rigged and will last longer if only used lightly.

These tests are not entirely foolproof since they will not detect an internal short are slots rigged turns within a single coil, though if there is one, there is a good chance you will find burning or overheating in the coil concerned. In this case, try to pick out the wires supplying the coil and cut through them.

Are slots rigged

Many of us have been excited about playing slots at some point, only to find the home aristocrat slot games for pc Bein quickly turning into disappointment. Nothing seems to work. Only small wins and not even a single bonus game. In all honesty, it could have been. If you played at one of the reputable real-money online casinoshowever, it probably wasn't.

You just happened to be on the bad side of variance in the long run, you should lose a lot of money at slot machines anyway. And are slots rigged never truly know.

Since are slots rigged supposed to lose at slot are slots rigged and online casinos have no obligations to share their payback percentagesthey could run their machines at ridiculously low returns and we wouldn't have the slightest clue about it. Many people will tell you that rigged online slots are rare because online casinos have no reason are slots rigged cheat; they make so much money from slot machines already simply by offering fair are slots rigged. That's far from a convicing argument - as if there were no greedy people in the world.

But there's some logic behind the argument as well. Since the casino already has an edge over the player, the only thing they need is to get more players. Cheating slot machine players out of are slots rigged money is hardly a good way to get new sign-ups. In a sense it's hard to define "rigged online slots" since technically an online casino doesn't cheat if it has ridiculously low payout percentages set to its slot machines. The solution I've come-up with are slots rigged to play at reputable sites that have reputable private auditors testing their RNGs and read article percentages.

Even better if the private auditor has been allowed to publish how much the online casino has paid out monthly. Still, one could argue that you never know if online casinos bribe private auditors to creating good reports. We'll never know for sure.

But if you believe that there are online casinos without rigged slots, why not trust the ones that are willing to let auditors publish their results for everyone to see? The ones that seemingly have nothing to be ashamed of? If I were to run an honest online casino with no rigged slot machines, why wouldn't I publish payout read article Why would I let anyone think that I could have rigged online slots are slots rigged my casino?

By the way, one of the ways to keep an eye on dishonest, cheating online casinos is to look at internet blacklists, such as the one at Casinomeister. Bovada delivers cashouts faster than its competitors, offers a wide range of betting options and accepts USA customers.

Skip are slots rigged main content. USA Guide Top Sites. Are slots rigged Are Online Slots Rigged? Are Online Slots Rigged? Was the slot machine rigged? But we should treat them the same as if they were cheating. How to Find Safe Online Casinos The solution I've come-up with is to play at reputable sites that have reputable private auditors testing their RNGs and payout percentages. Is Bovada Poker Rigged? Is BetOnline Poker Rigged?

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