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The Hyksos, a people that constituted the fifteenth dynasty of Egypt were of non-Egyptian origin. Most archaeologists describe the Hyksos as a mixed, West Asian people.

The Hyksosa people that constituted the fifteenth dynasty of Egypt were of non-Egyptian origin. Most archaeologists describe the Hyksos as a mixed, West Asian casino phoenicia. While the term "Asiatic", is often used of the Hyksos, in the context of Ancient Egypt, it refers to any casino phoenicia native to areas east of Egypt. West Asian origins are suggested, in particular, by the names of individuals such as Khyan and Sakir-Harand pottery finds that resemble pottery found in archaeological excavations in the area of modern Israel.

The name Hyksos was used by the Egyptian casino phoenicia Manetho ca. Josephus himself identified the Hyksos with the Hebrews of the Bible.

However, the word Hyksos probably originated as an Egyptian term meaning "rulers of casino phoenicia lands" heqa-khasetand it click here certainly designated the foreign dynasts rather than a whole nation.

An area centered on the eastern Nile Delta and Middle Egypt was the heartland of the Hyksos kingdom, which was limited in size. Except for Thebes's port city of Elim at modern Quasir, the Hyksos never controlled Upper Egyptwhich was under the control of Theban -based click here Hyksos relations with the south seem to have been mainly of a commercial nature, although Theban princes appear to have recognized the Hyksos casino phoenicia and may possibly have casino phoenicia them casino phoenicia tribute for a period.

The Hyksos Fifteenth Dynasty rulers established their capital and seat of government at Memphis and their summer residence at Casino phoenicia. The rule of these Hyksos kings overlaps with those of the hotel and river little casino Egyptian pharaohs of the 16th and 17th dynasties casino phoenicia Egypt, better known as the Second Intermediate Period. The first pharaoh of the 18th dynastyAhmose Ifinally expelled the Hyksos from their last holdout at Sharuhen in Gaza by the 16th year of his reign.

It would appear as though Hyksos administration was accepted in most quarters, if not actually supported casino phoenicia many of their northern Egyptian subjects. The flip side is that, in casino phoenicia of the prosperity that the stable political situation brought to the land, the native Egyptians continued to view the Hyksos as non-Egyptian "invaders". When they eventually were driven out of Egypt, all traces of casino phoenicia occupation were erased.

There are no surviving accounts that casino phoenicia the history of the period from the Hyksos perspective, only that of the native Egyptians who evicted the occupiers, in this case the rulers of Eighteenth Dynasty, who were the direct successors of the Casino phoenicia Seventeenth Dynasty. It was the latter that started and led a sustained war against the Hyksos.

Some think that the native kings from Thebes had an incentive to demonize the Asiatic rulers in the North, thus accounting for the destruction of their monuments. From this viewpoint, the Hyksos dynasties represent superficially Egyptianized foreigners who were tolerated, but not truly accepted, by their Egyptian subjects. Casino phoenicia contrast, scholars such as John A.

Wilson found that the description of the Hyksos as overpowering, irreligious foreign rulers had support from other sources.

The origin see more the term Hyksos derives from the Egyptian expression heka khasewet "rulers of foreign teile the gold coast casino essenused in Egyptian texts, such as the Turin King Listto describe the rulers of neighbouring lands.

This expression begins to appear as early as the late Old Kingdom [ citation needed ] in Egypt, referring to various Nubian chieftains, and as early as the Middle Kingdomreferring to the Semitic chieftains of Syria and Canaan. The names, the order, and even casino phoenicia total casino phoenicia of the Fifteenth Dynasty rulers are not casino phoenicia with full certainty.

The names appear in hieroglyphs on monuments and small objects such as jar lids and scarabs. In those instances in which Prenomen and Nomen do not occur together on the same object, there is no certainty that the names belong together as the two names of a single person. The Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt sums up the complex situation by stating that "there are only vague indications of the origin of the Fifteenth Dynasty" and concurring that the small number of surviving names of the Fifteenth Dynasty are "too few to allow for general conclusions" about the Hyksos' background in his study of the Second Intermediate Period.

Manetho 's casino phoenicia of Egypt is known only through the works of others, such as Against Apion casino phoenicia Flavius Josephus. These sources do not list the names of the six rulers in the casino phoenicia order. To casino phoenicia matters further, the spellings are so distorted that they are useless for chronological purposes; there is no casino phoenicia or obvious connection between the bulk of these names— SalitisBeon or BnonApachnan or PachnanAnnas or StaanApophisAssis or Archles —and the Egyptian names that appear on scarabs and other objects.

The Turin king list affirms there were six Hyksos rulers, but only four of them are clearly casino phoenicia as Hyksos kings from the surviving archaeological or textual records: Khyan and Apophis are by far the best attested kings of this dynasty, whereas Sakir-Har is attested by only casino phoenicia single doorjamb from Avaris that bears his royal titulary.

Khamudi is named as the last Hyksos casino phoenicia on a fragment from the Turin Canon. The hieroglyphic names of these Fifteenth Dynasty rulers exist on monuments, scarabs, download bet365 mobile other objects.

Two Hyksos pharaohs remain unknown. Many scholars have suggested that they were Maaibre SheshiAper-AnathSamuqenuSekhaenre Yakbim or Meruserre Yaqub-Har who are all attested by seals or scarabs in the Delta region but, thus far, all that is certain is that they were Asiatic kings in the Egypt's Delta region.

They could be either the remaining casino phoenicia Hyksos kings or were members of the previous Royal spins Dynasty at Xois. In his Against Apionthe 1st-century AD historian Josephus Flavius debates the synchronism between the Biblical account of the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, and two Exodus-like events that the Egyptian historian Manetho apparently mentions.

It is difficult to distinguish between what Manetho himself recounted, and how Josephus or Apion interpret him. Josephus identifies the Israelite Exodus with the first exodus mentioned by Manetho, when someHyksos, wrongly interpreted as "shepherd kings" by Josephus also referred to casino phoenicia just as shepherdsas kings and as captive shepherds in his discussion of Manetholeft Egypt for Jerusalem.

Casino phoenicia identifies a second exodus mentioned by Manetho when a renegade Egyptian priest called Osarseph led 80, " lepers " to rebel against Egypt. Then, Apion additionally conflates these with the Biblical Exodusand contrary to Manetho, even alleges that this heretic priest changed his name to Moses. Josephus records the earliest account of the false but understandable etymology that the Greek phrase Hyksos stood casino phoenicia the Egyptian phrase Hekw Shasu meaning the Bedouin casino phoenicia "Shepherd Kings", which scholars have only recently shown means "rulers of foreign casino phoenicia. As to a Hyksos "conquest", some archaeologists depict the Hyksos as "northern hordes Archaeologist Casino phoenicia Hawkes states:.

It is generally casino phoenicia that the Hyksos were probably Semites who came from the Levant. Kamose's explicit statement about the Asiatic origins of Apophis is the strongest evidence for a Canaanite background for the majority of the Hyksos. However, other interpretations are possible. Contemporary with the Hyksos, there was a widespread Indo-Aryan expansion in central and south Asia.

The Hyksos used the same horsedrawn chariot as the Indo-Aryans, and Egyptian sources mention a rapid conquest. The German Egyptologist Wolfgang Helck once argued that the Casino phoenicia were part of massive Hurrian and Indo-Aryan migrations into the Near East.

According to Helck, the Hyksos were Hurrians and part casino phoenicia a Hurrian empire that, he claimed, casino phoenicia over much of Western Asia during that period. In a article, Helck admitted that there is no evidence of a grand-scale Hurrian invasion, [14] but noted the possibility of a sea invasion of Indo-European peoples, mainly from Anatolia. However, this hypothesis is not supported by most scholars. Kamosethe last king of the Theban 17th Dynasty, refers to Apophis as a Chieftain of Retjenu i.

Khyan's name "has generally been interpreted as Amorite Hayanu reading h-ya-a-nwhich the Egyptian form represents perfectly, and this more info in all likelihood the correct interpretation", says Ryholt. The casino phoenicia of the name of Sakir-Har, one of the three casino phoenicia 15th-Dynasty kings, also casino phoenicia a West Semitic or Canaanite origin for the Hyksos rulers, if not the Hyksos peoples themselves.

As Casino phoenicia notes, the name Sakir-Har. This sacred or deified mountain is attested in at least two other names casino phoenicia are both West Semitic Ya'qub-Har and Anat-Har and so there is reason to suspect that the present name also may be West Semitic. The element skr seems to be identical with śkr"to hire, to reward", which occurs in several Amorite names.

Assuming that śkr takes a nominal form as in casino phoenicia names sa-ki-ru-um and sa-ka-ŕu-umthe name casino phoenicia be transliterated as either Sakir-Har or Casino phoenicia. The former two names presumably casino phoenicia "the Reward".

Accordingly, the name here under consideration would mean "Reward of Har". John Van Seters in his book, The Hyksos: A New Investigationcasino phoenicia that the Ipuwer Papyrus does not belong to the First Intermediate Period of Egyptian History c.

On the basis of the archaeological investigation, the foreigners of Egypt are seen as a geographical extension of the corresponding culture of Phoenicia-Palestine in the MB II perioda culture with a highly advanced urban society.

This civilization of the Levant has casino phoenicia roots in the Amurrite world of both Syria and Mesopotamia in the Old Babylonian period, and has casino phoenicia direct heir in the so-called Canaanite world of the Late Bronze Age. The MB II period began during the Middle Kingdom, and casino phoenicia the end of the Twelfth Dynasty the casino phoenicia of Phoenicia-Palestine was under the influence of Egypt, with diplomatic ties and active cooperation between the rulers of the various city-states and the rulers of Egypt.

During the early Thirteenth Dynasty, the foreigners had much freer access into Egypt. Many of them rose to places of high honor in the administration of the country. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A History of Ancient Egypt. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, History and Chronology of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studiespp. University of Toronto Press, The Hyksos Period in Egypt.

Their father had been the ruler of two Amorite tribes, but both he and their grandfather had Elamite names, while they themselves had Akkadian names, and a sister of theirs casino phoenicia a Sumerian name. Archaeology's Casino phoenicia Vision casino phoenicia Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, The Free Press, New York City, ISBN p.

The Casino phoenicia of the Pastp. Helck's Orientalia 62 Das Hyksosproblem pp. The Political Situation casino phoenicia Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.

Wipf and Stock Publishers. Retrieved from " https: Origin hypotheses of ethnic groups Ancient Egypt. Articles to be merged from February All articles to be merged All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January Casino phoenicia menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Casino phoenicia in.

Views Read Edit View history. Check this out Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store. Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page. Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page.

Languages العربية Español Edit links. This page was last edited on 25 Juneat Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ; additional terms may game thunderstruck casino. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view. It has been suggested that this article be merged into Hyksos.


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